The Toxicology course covers 1 semester and 60 didactic hours.

Frontal lectures (30 h) and laboratory classes (30 h) are in located  the seventh semester.

Students gain knowledge about the mechanisms of pathophysiological changes at the subcellular, cellular, tissue, organ and systemic levels in the course of animal poisoning, knows the basic concepts and toxicological terms, factors affecting the formation of animal poisoning, knows and describes the general principles of diagnostics and treatment of poisoning, knows and describes in detail the causes, symptoms, treatment procedures in selected cases of poisoning, has the knowledge needed to conduct clinical examination of animals in accordance with the study plan, in-depth analysis of clinical symptoms, diagnosis of anatomopathological changes, assessment of laboratory and additional results, making the diagnosis taking into account differential diagnosis, therapeutic and / or prophylactic measures regarding animal poisoning; is able to describe the systemic and environmental conditions, etiological factors and development mechanisms of poisoning in animals and use the knowledge on this subject to take appropriate diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive actions.

During the course students gain ability to explain and interpret disorders at the molecular level and at the cell, tissue level, organ, system and organism in the course of animal poisoning, and to collect anamnesis, conduct a clinical trial in accordance with the clinical trial plan, in-depth analysis and proper interpretation of clinical symptoms, anatomopathological changes, results of laboratory and additional tests, make a diagnosis, taking into account differential diagnosis and taking therapeutic and preventive actions in cases of poisoning in animals, shows independence in action, formulate own opinions, accepts responsibility for decisions, are aware of their effects, especially those that affect human and animal health.

In the academic year 2021/2022 lectures are held in room 501 – Collegium Veterinarium

Laboratory classes are held in room no 301 – Collegium Veterinarium

Person responsible for Toxicology:

Jose Luis Valverde Piedra, Professor DVM. PhD.  – Collegium Veterinarium, room no 309 (1st  floor)

Schedule of Lectures:

  1. Toxicology – historical background, current trends in the development of toxicology
  2. Basic terminology used in toxicology. Poison – poisoning, the course of poisoning and their causes; definition of poisons, the dose, type of poisoning.
  3. Factors determining the toxicity: physic-chemical properties – solubility, particle size, chemical structure,
  4. Factors determining the toxicity (continued): bonding, isomerism and functional groups, structural and optical isomerism, the substituents.
  5. Biological factors determining the toxicity: age, sex (hormonal balance), nutrition, health.
  6. The fate of poisons in the organism: a. xenobiotic absorption: absorption through the skin, respiratory system, gastrointestinal tract; other routes – intravenous, intraperitoneal, intramuscular, subcutaneous
  7. The fate of poisons in the organism (continued): xenobiotic distribution: passive and active transport of xenobiotics, volume of distribution of protein, plasma, accumulation,
  8. The fate of poisons in the organism (continued): xenobiotic excretion: by the urine, bile, air, saliva, sweat, milk
  9. Xenobiotics biotranformation: phase I reactions (oxidation, reduction, hydrolysis), phase II reactions (coupling reaction – biosynthesis); the role of cytochrome P450;
  10. Toxicodynamics and toxicometric of toxic compounds in the animal body: Determination of basal cytotoxicity, types of methods (assessment of membrane integrity, proliferative capacity and metabolic capacity)
  11. Toxicity of selected pesticides – synthetic pyrethroids, pyridine alkaloids, dithiocarbamates fungicides,
  12. Toxicity of herbicides – chlorofenoxycarboxilic acid derivatives, dinitrophenols, urea derivatives.
  13. Toxicity of persistent organic pollutants – POP, chlorinated hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs),
  14. Toxicity of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans 2,3,7,8 TCDD
  15. Heavy metals toxicity (Cd, Hg, As, Pb)

Schedule of Classes:

  • General principles of safety in the toxicology laboratory. Rules applicable to toxicology classes. General toxicology
  • Acute and chronic intoxication diagnosis – anamnesis, clinical signs, pathological anatomy sings, collection and handling of samples for laboratory analysis, cover letter to toxicological laboratory.
  • General principles for intoxication treatment
  • Partial exam I(topics studied in classes 1 and 2). Analysis of NaCl concentration in animal feed
  • NaCl intoxication (movies). Nitrates and nitrites intoxication. Ammonia intoxication (movie)
  • Partial exam. II (classes 3, 4). Mycotoxicoses
  • Toxic plant intoxication (part 1)
  • Toxic plants intoxication(part 2)
  • Toxins and intoxications: a) toxins of animal origin- toxins produced be vipers, snakes, toads, and insects
  • Partial exam III (classes 5,6,7,8). Pesticides intoxication – general characteristics (movie)
  • Pesticides intoxication – phosphor-organic insecticides, carbamates, chlorinated compounds
  • Pesticides intoxication (continued), anticoagulant rodenticides, strychnine (movie), bromethalin, zinc phosphate.
  • Partial exam IV (pesticides- classes 9, 10,11). Ethylene glycol intoxication, petrol derivate intoxications
  • Lead and mercury intoxication (movies). Drugs intoxication
  • Partial exam V (classes 12, 13). Catching up unapproved partial examinations.

Didactic materials

Basic books

  1. VETERINARY TOXICOLOGY Basic and Clinical Principles. Edited by RAMESH C. GUPTA, DVM, MVSC, PHD, DABT, FACT Professor and Head, Toxicology Department Breathitt Veterinary Center Murray State University Hopkinsville, Kentucky, AMSTERDAM • BOSTON • HEIDELBERG • LONDON • NEW YORK • OXFORD. PARIS • SAN DIEGO • SAN FRANCISCO • SINGAPORE • SYDNEY • TOKYO Academic Press is an imprint of Elsevier. ISBN: 978-0-12-370467-2. 2007.
  2. Handbook on Toxicology of Metals available to the reader. Gunnar F. Nordberg, Bruce A. Fowler, Monica Nordberg. Copenhagen 13th June 2005.
  3. Plant Toxicology. Fourth Edition. Edited by Bertold Hock. Professor of Cell Biology and Dean of the Center of Life and Food Sciences Technische Universität München Freising, Germany. ISBN: 0-8247-5323-2. Marcel Dekker, 270 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016, U.S.A.

Auxiliary books

  1. Food and Nutritional Toxicology. Stanley T. Omaye. Boca Raton London New York Washington, D.C. © 2004 by CRC Press LLC .
  2. A TEXTBOOK OF MODERN TOXICOLOGY. THIRD EDITION. Edited by Ernest Hodgson. Department of Environmental and Biochemical Toxicology. North Carolina State University. A JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC., PUBLICATION. Copyright  2004 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
  3. VETERINARY TOXICOLOGY, Lecture notes and classes works. GINTARAS DAUNORAS. Study kit for LUHS Veterinary Faculty Foreign Students LSMU LEIDYBOS NAMAI, KAUNAS 2012.